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SEO terms and definitions — C list


Cache — a portion of computer memory allocated for quick access to frequently requested information from the core, but slower memory.


The Cache transfers data between a high frequency processor and slower RAM. It repack of information from a RAM to small blocks processed by the processor. This helps reduce the waiting time of CPU and increases overall system performance.


The cache is placed as part of the processor or as a separate chip depending on the level of performance. The fastest cache memory of the first level and less operational second level cache are performed as part of the processor cache of the third level as a separate chip on the motherboard. Physically the cache is implemented on the trigger, consisting of transistors, what is the speed and low volume. Latest ranges from a few KB to several MB. The smallest cache of the first level, the largest third level for more than 24 MB. Some machines use a cache of the fourth level, but its use is limited.


The principle of operation of the cache memory based approximation of relevant information to the consumer, has a wide application. Caching is used in operating systems, servers, browsers, special programs, external storage devices. In any case, demand information is stored in a specially provided software or hardware device ready for rapid use. With the active use of PC and working Internet cache is recommended to be cleaned periodically, since the information takes place on the hard disk.

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Captcha is a code that often you need to enter in forms when registering a new account on the services or add to the website any material by guests. The reduction originates from Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart.

SEO and captcha are not connected. When using automated tools, for example, for mass registration site in directories, hackers use OCR program decrypts captchas.

If you have a blog, it is advisable to add captcha to reduce the amount of spam and thus to avoid penalties from search engines.

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Click fraud

Clickfraud is a set of activities in which clicks on any advertising link are performed by a person (or persons) who are not interested in the presented product (service).

The emergence of this type of fraud due to the significant development of advertising through the Internet. A significant spread of information technology has entailed the development of new methods of fraud, and clickfraud is one of them. The object of the fraud are advertisers placing contextual advertising on the principle of Pay per click (pay per click).

A few signs of click fraud:

  • A large share of transitions with duplicate IP addresses;
  • A large number of transitions from sites of competitors;
  • A large number of rapidly leaving the online visitors;
  • A higher rate of growth in the number of visitors compared to the growth rate of customers.
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Method of black hat search engine optimization of the site when visitors and search engines at the same address see different content on the page.

Cloaking is useful when need to show their desired content, human readable and credible for users, but provide SEO optimized page, the most relevant for keywords for search engines.

Thus, it is possible to achieve a good position without restricting yourself to the beauty of the design.

Implement cloaking is possible using htaccess file directly or using script code. In any case, you must be able to distinguish between IP addresses a search bot from other addresses using IP addresses lists of search engines.

Most search engines (Google, Bing) are struggling with cloaking as dishonest reception of promotion of sites and lower sites in the search engine results page.

When you use cloaking methods or close to it, it should be remembered that the reason for the ban site is an attempt to deceive the search engine. If you primarily care about the user, ban the site for the use of cloaking is unlikely.

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CMS (Content Management System) is special software, which is necessary for the creation content, content control, organization structure and editing of the website.

Also often used terms such as site engine or content management system.

The basic principles of CMS

CMS systems allow you to not only add content to the site, but also to correct it, without changing the internal mechanism of output and the organization of the pages. CMS conditionally can be divided into two parts: the database (which contains all the information about the content of the pages) and a visual display of information to users (templates).

To make it most convenient to work with the information content of the site, a large number of content management systems have a tool called "Visual Editor" - a program that can generate HTML-code, it facilitates custom formatting of the text layout. Therefore, in the process, you can immediately see the content that will be displayed on the user's screen

CMS goals

Content management system is used to allow user to fill the resource content, without attracting specialists.

To use CMS, you do not need knowledge of HTML or programming. But for to start working with the Content Management System, you must learn basic principles and to learn thoroughly the user manual for the CMS.

CMS types

Usually engines are divided according to the following criteria.

Depending on the types of licenses, there are:

  • Open source CMS with free license. These systems can be installed any number of times, and there is the possibility of adjusting the source code;
  • Special CMS. Usually such programs are paid. These engines have the closed source code to view, study, edit and modification.

Depending on the template engines can be divided into the following types:

  • Autonomous data handling. They are necessary to create static websites;
  • Interactive CMS. They are necessary to create dynamic websites;
  • Hybrids. They are an ideal combination of interactive functions and autonomous systems.
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The ratio of the number of visitors to the site who commits any targeted action to the total number of visitors is called conversion. Targeted actions may include: check-in service, call, buy (order) product, newsletter subscription, add the site to your bookmarks, file downloading, etc.

In different cases the conversion is different and every optimization aims to increase this parameter. Conversion increased due to the improvement usability site design, improve the quality of the landing page and other factors. Also to increase conversion, use:

  • Placing the exact key phrase entered by the user in a search form on a landing page; 
  • Bright highlighted the benefits for visitors of your product; 
  • Themed images, with which you can quickly determine what will be discussed on the page. 
  • The lack of distractions, those that can distract the visitor from buying; 
  • Short paragraphs, reading that you can immediately understand the essence of the content; 
  • Short and well-marked headings. 
  • A call to action; 
  • Important information should be in the visible part of the screen (before scrolling.

The conversion of the number of visitors who came and performed some operation (created, clicked on the advertisement, signed up, bought the goods, etc.) to the total number of visitors to the site. This figure is calculated as a percentage

The conversion occurs in three major areas:

  • In sales (number of customers who bought a product to number of visitors or businesses);
  • Ad conversion (the ratio of impressions of the advertising information to the ratio of the responding customers);
  • Internet marketing (the number of guests on the site, which produced a useful action to the number of those who visited the website).

The conversion provides information on how to successfully use marketing efforts to attract visitors and the efforts of the enrichment site – news, shop - new prestige products. However, the main thing is sales.

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Cookies (Cookies) is a tool to remember previously visited web sites. Created solely for the convenience of users of the Internet. Using Cookies, sites personification, collecting attendance statistics, and providing a variety of preferences, even to the choice of design.


Cookies was developed in the mid 90-ies of the last century the Corporation of Netscape competing with Microsoft to create browser-based programs. Cookies were developed for one specialized commercial project. However, successful development has led to a significant expansion of the use of Cookies. With early support Cookies the most popular Internet Explorer triumphantly marched on the planet, which caused the dissatisfaction of some state structures, primarily in the United States.

A period of persecution

Mostly Cookies were accused in the fact that they can be easily used to breach of confidentiality, interfering in the personal lives of users. In 1996 and 1997 in the United States was even adopted restrictive regulations for Cookies. However, the persecution of Cookies was only part of the overall concerns of violation of privacy the development of the Internet in General. Cookies have become an integral part of using the world wide web.

Debunking myths. Fears the use of Cookies was based on the elementary ignorance of the specifics of this tool. Users with the filing of the incompetent media has gained confidence in the fact that Cookies are similar to software that collects information about the user's computer and transferring them to the site. It took a lot of time to this misconception was dispelled. Cookies are not a program, and text information on the site, which was previously entered by the user. If some mistakenly believe Cookies and virus, then this virus, so to speak, on the contrary – the website does not read information from the computer, and he shares his data with the user's machine.

Advantages Of Cookies. In most cases, the use of Cookies free the user from performing a large number of routine operations when visiting the same web resource, for example, when making purchases in the same online stores. If someone is afraid of Cookies, almost all browsers enable you to delete Cookies after the session on this website.

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Copyright — form of protection of intellectual property, which occurs immediately after the creation of the work and does not require official registration or registration. In other words, what is copyright is the recognition of a copyright in their work, whether it is text, melody, program, photograph, painting, etc. In the United States are given the opportunity to register their rights to property. Copyright does not cover ideas, directories, processes, principles, etc.

There is a copyright symbol — ©, which identifies and marks the protection of copyright . In 1952 was adopted by the world (Geneva) Convention on copyright, which suggests the following procedure for the designation of protection of exclusive rights of authorship:

  • the sign of protection copyright © — the Latin letter "c" in a circle;
  • the name of the owner;
  • the year of first publication.

The owners of the sites in this designation at the bottom of the page, claim the right of ownership to the content posted on the resource. I.e., to copy and use materials from this site without permission of the owner of the site is prohibited.

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CPA (Cost Per Action) — a popular payment model of online advertising, the compensation is paid only for certain actions of visitors to the sites of advertisers, such as new user registration, loan through the web, buying in Internet shops, watching videos etc.

Variety CPA:

  • CPS (Cost Per Sale) – the purchase price, widely used in Internet Commerce;
  • CPL (Cost Per Lead) – generating actions (leads), in which the advertiser receives contact details of users and their actual location. Used on sites voting, when you reserve goods without providing contact details.
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CPC (cost per click) - is the amount that is paid for user clicks on paid search, after which a visitor reaches the advertised web resource or one of its pages.

CPC paid by the advertiser to the website owner.

It seems that placing ads on your site, you will start to receive money immediately. But not so easy, because a lot profit from the CPC site owner with little attendance will not earn.

Average CPC is ten cents.To the advertising material on your web-site and it started to generate income, you need to bring the site into a form that could be interested in the advertiser. Many information portals, file sharing is working on by CPC.

For what pay

Advertiser's always nice to get the best results for advertising, so it is not surprising increase CPC, provided that the user is on the site will perform any action. Due to the fact that user activity is high, the price per click can reach tens of cents, and sometimes tens dollars.

CPC and search engines

Model pay-per-click is the main means of monetizing search engines. The search engines show ads next to organic search results, what is the best option, as the ads will be well to answer users ' questions, thereby increasing the chance for a click. In addition, search engines place the advertisers ads on sites-partners of their ad networks, which further increases the audience coverage. And as ads on partner sites are displayed either on the subject of the resource or relating to a user interested in lately the likelihood of a click is also quite large.

The issue price

Many webmasters, when they thought about this method of earnings, very inspired. Of course! Hang an advertising banner on their site, do nothing and money! Well, isn't this tempting? Hurry to clarify. The income from the CPC that gets the owner of the new yet an unknown site miserable. The market price of a click is, on average, a few cents and rarely more than ten.

Special conditions

The advertiser interested in obtaining the maximum effect from advertising. The advertiser is preferable that the user just went to his website, and and performed there any action, for instance, registered. For the execution of user actions, the advertiser pays more. Quite a lot of money for clicks pay online shopping, if the user is logged in as a buyer.

High paying clicks, after which the user is active on the advertised website, forcing webmasters to encourage visitors to your website to perform actions on the advertiser's site. Thus, the advertised site gets additional promotion.

Search Engines and CPC

Search engines do not prevent to earn to webmasters, but also to perceive the banner as an outlink for ranking do not intend too. A lot more Link Juice for search engine optimization have text links and not banners.

Therefore, the calculation of some of the optimizers, hang banners all over the Internet hoping to get a great Link Juice, are not met.

With optimization of the website CPC is associated indirectly. 

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Cost per mille or abbreviation CPM is an index that is used to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaigns and shows the cost of thousands of contacts audience (listeners, readers or viewers).

The peculiarities and the efficiency of the CPM. A feature of the CPM ratio is the versatility, since this indicator enables the assessment of all types of media. CPM enables the assessment of economic efficiency depending on the final result, which is characterized by the number of contacts that are received by the owner on the results of the advertising campaign or other media events. In addition, thanks to this indicator it becomes possible to select the most effective method of marketing because CPM allows you to evaluate their performance from an economic point of view.

The value of the indicator allows to assess the value of impact on the target audience through specific events. The efficiency is higher the smaller the value of this indicator. In email marketing, CPM allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of each siteThe analysis takes into consideration not only the number of contacts, but the time in which they occur. In this regard, there is a possibility of evaluation and analysis of each campaign and its duration.

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CPS – an abbreviated acronym for Cost Per Sale. In SEO under this abbreviation refers to the advertising model when the website owner to be paying for the posted link, which was used by the user when performing a certain action. Also for term CPS, can be caleld PPS – Pay per Sale.

This model to be one of the types of affiliate programs. The original appearance of this model of partnership, provided for the establishment of the so-called affiliate storefronts.

The functioning of the model CPS

To implement the partnership model, on the customer's website banner block has a special algorithm that tracks with which the resource was produced by transition, which was preceded by an active action of the user.

A fact which confirms the activity of the user is committing such actions as:

  • Any action confirming the intention of the client (registration, add to cart, and so on);
  • Carrying out a partial or full payment or advance payment for goods or service.

When implementing this model of partnership used such approaches as:

  • Fixed payment for moving the link, which ended with the active user action;
  • A percentage of sales made after clicking on the link by the user.

With the development of Internet Commerce this partnership model has gained increasingly widespread. And it's actively used by most Internet resources.

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CPV is Cost Per Visitor.CPS is one of the methods of calculation in online advertising. Is method where payment to the webmaster is made depending on the number of attracted to the advertiser's site visitors.

CPS - the payment method of services in the field of Internet advertising. The advertiser pays the publisher a certain amount of money for each user visiting the site via the promotional link.

The more people visit the website by clicking the link or banner placed by the affiliate, the more money for the webmaster. This takes into account only unique transitions — if a user comes to your site link/banner a few times, pay only for the first transition.

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Crawling Budget

Crawling budget combines the scan speed and crawling demand. In Google under crawling budget understand the number of URLS that Googlebot is willing and able to scan.

Factors influencing crawling budget

In Google found that the presence of a large number of low-quality pages can have a negative impact on its scanning and indexing. Below is the list of categories into which these pages are (in descending order of importance):

  • Faceted navigation and session IDs;
  • Duplicates;
  • Page that returns a 404 soft error;
  • Hacked page;
  • Low-quality and spam content;
  • URL, creating an infinite space (such as calendars).

Find out also what is meant Crawling demand - https://seoheronews.com/crawling-demand

Link to crawling budget FAQ - https://seoheronews.com/google-crawl-faq

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Crawling Demand

Crawling demand is the amount of pages that Google wants to scan. This figure is based on:

  • Popularity of website pages;
  • Relevant content in the search index.

Find out also what is meant Crawling budget - https://seoheronews.com/crawling-budget

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Cross-browser compatibility — inherent site characteristic, implying its correct display in all popular browsers or compatibility of your website with client applications.

The website does not must to be pixel by pixel same in all browsers.

Can be accepted as correct display in the following cases:

  • The structure of the website is stored;
  • No unintended overlapping text to another text and text on images;
  • Saved overall readability of the information on the page.

When you test cross-browser compatibility, it is customary to use the latest versions of browsers such as:

  • Edge;
  • Google Chrome;
  • Opera;
  • Mozilla FireFox;
  • Safari.
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Cross-link or is the through link which is located on every page of a site . Cross-link unlike a normal link have a different effect on the acceptor. Usually this effect is below links from index page, but the above links from inner pages of the website.

Cross-link in the sidebar is often affixed on the site of the similar topics partner.

Cross-link in the footer is most often the sites that have been involved in the development of this resource supported by: design studios, advertising agencies, the developer of the template.

In the presence of through links in backlinks profile to the acceptor flows more link juice, so to have through links in the backlinks is very beneficial by SEO point of view.

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Crossposting is a process parallel placement of the material (themes, articles, links, etc) on various resources, either on different pages of the same resource. The main purpose of crossposting is to expand the audience of this web resource, including for the account of the users who are convenient to study material through the social network to which they are accustomed.

Functions of Crossposting

The main functions of this tool are:

  • The acceleration index of the material;
  • Increase performance TIC and PR;
  • Attraction of additional traffic (usually, free blog platforms);
  • Creating an image in the blogosphere;
  • Protection of unique content from theft;
  • Promotion on search queries.
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CSS (an acronym for Cascading Style Sheets – cascading style sheets) is a set of descriptions of HTML elements (HTML tags). They can be applied not only to an individual element, but also to all identical tags on all pages of your website. CSS is a Supplement to HTML, which significantly expands its capabilities.

With CSS you can change the font settings, manage colors page, background images, margins, positioning elements, etc. All this can can be controlled by using HTML tags, however, cascading style sheets, a more developed and supported in all browsers.

Today there are three methods of applying CSS rules to the sites page:

  • With the help of style attribute.
  • Using the tag <style>.
  • Using links to external style sheet.
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CTB (click to buy ratio) - is the ratio of a certain number of visitors to take any action on the site to the total number of visitors.

Use this figure to calculate the coefficient of performance of the advertising company.

The user action may include such as:

  • registration on the website;
  • visit the specific pages or links of website;
  • indicating their contact details;
  • making a call on the mobile phone;
  • ordering of goods or services;
  • payment or prepayment, full or partial.

Calculation of CTB

CTB calculation by the following formula CTB = CA/CG

Ca - number of users have made the necessary actions for the resource owner.

Cg – the number of users who clicked on the link.

It should be noted that this figure allows us to estimate the effect of advertising campaigns in a very approximate manner, because the active user actions provides a variety of other factors, such as site design, usability, the adequacy of the price, effective advertising and the like. Therefore, CTB, more correctly, be attributed to indicators which assess the overall effect of the carried out marketing and optimization work.

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CTI (Click-To-Interest) – a numerical coefficient that shows the effectiveness of Internet advertising.

CTI is determined by the ratio of interested visitors to their total number. In this case interested are those users that have browsed on the website more than one page, returned to the site again or add web address to bookmarks.

In contrast to these primary indicators, as the number of host used in the analysis of Internet advertising, CTI is a relative factor dependent on the total number of visitors.

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CTR is click-through rate. This is an indicator that expresses the ratio of the number of clicks (on ads or banners) and the number of impressions presented in percentages. CTR is used in the field of online advertising to evaluate its effectiveness.

The highest CTR provides contextual advertising in search engines displayed depending on the user-entered query.

CTR is a ratio which means a ratio of clicks on the ad unit to the number of its displays and is always expressed in percent. Simply put, if the ad is viewed 100 times and one visitor clicked on the ad, the clickthrough rate of the ad unit will be 1%.

When composing ads it is important to consider the following indicators:

  • Popularity among visitors to the promoted product or service;
  • The popularity of the topics;
  • The size of the ad unit in pixels;
  • The 'weight' of the banner in kilobytes;
  • What is the format chosen for ads (flash, gif);
  • The period of time when the banner is displayed;
  • The quality of the banner;
  • Page resource, where the advertising is broadcast;
  • Location of advertising on the site;
  • The contrast of the ad unit against the background of the site.

CTR coefficient is inextricably linked with this concept in Internet marketing, as CR (Conversion Rate). This indicator gives an idea of how many visitors made a purchase, and not only clicked on ads.

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Cybersquatter – specialist, which registers itself to domain names with the purpose of selling them in the future to interested parties. This kind of earnings is called cybersquatting.

Who is the cybersquatter, and how it works

Cybersquatters used to domain names the names of famous companies and sites slightly changing the name. Here is a bet on inattentive users. Due to the fact that the site name is very similar to the original, inattentive visitors enter the false site. This brings profit to cybersquatting from viewing advertising.

The second method is the prediction of some economic situations, such as merging firms, or the arrival on the market of new goods and services.

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